Diamond is now the main use was no longer used for gems, because it is one of the hardest substance it has been discovered, have been used as the production of cutting, drilling, grinding tools such as a very important industrial materials.
Diamond diamond mineral name called, it is generally said that after pondering the diamond is a diamond. The chemical composition of the diamond is pure carbon, the hardness of 10, is the hardest substance in nature, the proportion of 3.47 to 3.55, the refractive index of 2.42. Octahedral crystalline or dodecahedron. Brittle, transparent, not afraid of acid and alkali erosion.
The chemical composition of the diamond is pure carbon, graphite chemical composition is pure carbon, diamond extremely hard, but the texture is very soft graphite. This is because the graphite carbon atoms are arranged in a layer, bonding force between atoms is small, the carbon atoms in diamond is neatly arranged in staggered cube structure, each carbon atom with other closely 4 carbon atoms directly connected, constitute a solid crystal. For the carbon atoms forming such a structure, requires a high temperature of 2,000 degrees Celsius and 50,000 atmospheres. People are now able to take advantage of high temperature and pressure to produce synthetic diamond.
Diamond is generally colorless. After pondering the diamond can produce dazzling light. Generally believed that more than 1 carat diamond as big, more than 100 kt for the large diamond. Large blocks of diamond is extremely rare, only three more than the current block in the world, the largest of which, "Cullinan" 3,106 carats, was discovered in 1905 in South Africa (Cullinan diamond is the world's largest diamond, found in 1905 years, the origin of the South African Transvaal Playmill mine. Mine person found this surname Cullinan diamond that this name. Cullinan diamond is colorless, 3,106 carats, or about 621 grams. This diamond is the local government after the purchase as a gift was presented to King Edward VII after the company cut by the famous Amsterdam nine large diamonds and 96 small diamonds, these diamonds all flawless, the largest one named Star of Africa